With questions of identity negotiation and power now central in anthropology, anthropologists must become more attentive to negotiations in the interview process itself. This article draws together insights from sociolinguistics, psychoanalysis, and literary criticism to identify procedures for recognizing multiple layers of significance in interview responses. Passages from two well-known ethnographies, Dorinne Kondo’s Crafting Selves (1990) and Sidney Mintz’s Worker in the Cane (1974), are reinterpreted to demonstrate how attending to transference and countertransference, allusion and intertextuality, and linguistic phenomena such as ambiguity and pronominal shifts can enhance the anthropologist’s awareness of the process of identity negotiation in the field and yield richer ethnographic writing that goes beyond the use of abstracted cultural patterns as an explanatory device to a demonstration of how cultural practices are enacted with and through the ethnographer. [interviewing, ethnography, identity, transference, sociolinguistics, intertextuality]
IN THIS CHAPTER, we consider some of the responses of Muslim youth growing up in the United States amidst the atmosphere of suspicion associated with the war on terror. We focus on youth from middle class families of South Asian background living in the Raleigh-Durham area of North Carolina, an area that has drawn many professional immigrants and their families to the hightechnology companies associated with the Research Triangle Park. At the time of this research, these youth were in their late teens and early twenties. At the time of the September 11 attacks, they were in their early and mid-teens, and in the midst of navigating the social, familial, and identity-related challenges that are a central aspect of growing up in the United States. Given the class of these youth as the children of professionals in middle America, we are concerned with how they have perceived and experienced the changing discourse surrounding Islam and Muslims since 9/11 and how they see it affecting their identities. Copyright © 2008 by Russell Sage Foundation.
The inbetweenness of those who migrate is not easily captured in the models that dominate the anthropology of emotions. This chapter examines situations in which this inbetweenness is foregrounded: the medical clinic, where many migrants seek help in managing the stresses of migration; the emotional structurings of the memory of home; and the relationships between first and second generations, in which emotional structures and identities are transmitted across a gulf of cultural difference. © 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Against a backdrop of increasingly vocal assertions that Germany’s growing Muslim immigrant population is resisting integration through the development of a “parallel society,” this article demonstrates how German social policy literature, the news media, and cinema converge to naturalize assumptions of cultural difference through a mythological process that generates polarized stereotypes of the cultural practices of Turks in Germany. This discourse freezes the Muslim woman as an oppressed other to the liberated Western woman and generates scripts for the liberation of Turkish women that limit their options by posing multiculturalism, hybridity, or humanistic individualism as the only models for integration. This discourse reinforces the misrecognition of practicing Muslims who are involved in Islamic groups or wear headscarves. I propose an alternative approach that focuses on the practical effects of competing discourses by tracing out ethnographically the micropolitics of everyday life to foreground the multiple positionings and identities that immigrants and their families occupy and to identify how they negotiate the contradictions and inconsistencies they experience. [hybridity, gender, micropolitics, Islam, Europe]
The effort to understand globalization and the diaspora experience has challenged anthropology's theoretical apparatus. We can no longer understand culture as a system of meanings that constitutes social reality and shapes the experience of individuals. Anthropologists are now preoccupied with flows of goods, ideas, and people, and with borderlands, where culture is a fluid, often inconsistent and disjunctive process. From this perspective, the idea of the individual as possessing a cohesive self-whether understood to be culturally constituted, innate, or a psychological, developmental achievement-has also been challenged. In its place we now see multiple identities, shifting selves (Ewing 1990a), and even an ever fluid process of identification in which an individual never fully inhabits a stable identity, but is continually escaping into new positions (Hall 1997; Ewing 2000). © 2003 State University of New York. All rights reserved.
Freudian dream analysis pays little attention to a dream's manifest content, except as a starting point for free association. But many dreams have a clear narrative structure, and in many cultures, the manifest content of such dreams is culturally patterned and significant on its own terms. The dreamer and others may find in the story of the dream a resolution to personal and even social conflicts that may be transformative. Such phenomena suggest that in clinical settings, attention to dreams as a creative process as well as a vehicle for expressing symptoms may further healing.