• Publications of Anne-Maria B. Makhulu

      • Books

          • A-M Makhulu, BA Buggenhagen and S Jackson.
          • (2010).
          • Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities.
          • The University of California International and Area Studies Digital Collection, (also published in hardcopy),
          • University of California Press.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The description of Africa as a continent in perpetual crisis, ubiquitous in the popular media and in policy and development circles, is at once obvious and obfuscating. This collection by leading ethnographers moves beyond the rhetoric of African crisis to theorize people’s everyday practices under volatile conditions not of their own making. From Ghanaian hiplife music to the U.S. "diversity lottery" in Togo, from politicos in Côte d’Ivoire to squatters in South Africa, the essays in Hard Work, Hard Times uncover the imaginative ways in which African subjects make and remake themselves and their worlds, and thus make do, get by, get over, and sometimes thrive.

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2015).
          • Making Freedom: Apartheid, Squatter Politics, and the Struggle for Home.
          • Duke University Press.
          • (In press)
          Publication Description

          Making Freedom: Apartheid, Squatter Politics and the Struggle for Home examines the status and meaning of the South African city under apartheid and immediately after the transition to democracy focusing on the ways in which matters of home-making, citizenship, work, and race critically intersected with the “urban,” and thereby came to constitute it as a strategic space in which marginal subjects, specifically, the black metropolitan poor, sought to make claims on the apartheid state.

      • Published Articles

          • AB Makhulu.
          • (2015).
          • A Brief History of the Social Wage: Welfare before and after Racial Fordism.
          • SAQ: The South Atlantic Quarterly
          • ,
          • 115
          • (1)
          • Duke University Press.
          Publication Description

          This essay explores the legacy of racially allocated welfare in South Africa, focusing on the history of the migrant labor system. In outlining a relationship between racial capitalism and precarity—the immediate consequence of the denial of welfare—the essay argues that the promises of universal welfare that came with the transition to democracy were ultimately displaced given the advent of neoliberalism post-1994. If the anti-apartheid struggle strove to dismantle white supremacy, in practical terms, the liberation movements addressed the everyday, material conditions of life including land, housing, services, and wages creating continuity with struggles since 1994 that have been primarily concerned to address the inadequacies of welfare policy and the challenges of social reproduction.

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2015).
          • Labour, Insecurity and Violence in South Africa: An Afterword.
          • Journal of Southern African Studies
          • M Bolt and D Rajak (Eds.),
          • ,
          • 42
          • (5)
          • .
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2015).
          • Reckoning With Apartheid: The Conundrum of Working Through the Past, An Introduction.
          • Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East
          • ,
          • 36
          • (1)
          • Duke University Press.
          Publication Description

          From April 26-29, 1994, South Africa held its first universal, democratic elections. Witnessed by the world, South Africans of all races waited patiently in line to cast their ballots, signaling the official and symbolic birth of the “new” South Africa. The subsequent years, marked initially with euphoric hopes for racial healing enabled by institutional processes such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), have instead, most recently, inspired deep concern about epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS, violent crime, state corruption, and unbridled market reforms directed at everything from property to bodies to babies. Now, seemingly beleaguered state officials deploy the mantra “TINA” (There Is No Alternative [to neoliberal development]) to fend off criticism of growing income and wealth disparities. To coincide, more or less, with the anniversary of 1994—less to commemorate than to signal something about the trajectory of the past twenty years—we are proposing an interdisciplinary, special theme section of Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (CSSAAME) entitled “The Haunted Present: Reckoning After Apartheid” (tentative title). The special theme section is framed around questions of reckoning in the double sense of both a moral and practical accounting for historical injury alongside the challenges and failures of the no-longer “new” South Africa. Against accounts depicting the liberation era as non-violent and peaceable, more nuanced analysis we argue suggests not only that South Africa’s “revolution” was marked by both collective and individual violence—on the part of the state and the liberation movements—but that reckoning with the present demands of scholars, the media, and cultural commentators that they begin to grapple more fully with the dimensions and different figurations of South Africa’s violent colonial history. Indeed, violence and reckoning appear as two central forces in contemporary South African political, economic, and social life. In response, we are driven to pose the following questions: In the post-apartheid period, what forms of (individual, structural) violence have come to bear on South African life? How does this violence reckon with apartheid and its legacies? Does it in fact reckon with the past? How can we or should we think about violence as a response to the (failed?) reckoning of state initiatives like the TRC? What has enabled or enables aesthetic forms—literature, photography, plastic arts, and other modes of expressive culture—to respond to the difficulties of South Africa’s ongoing transition? What, in fact, would a practice or ethic of reckoning defined in the following way look like? ˈrekəniNG/ noun: • the action or process of calculating or estimating something: last year was not, by any reckoning, a particularly good one; the system of time reckoning in Babylon • a person’s view, opinion, or judgment: by ancient reckoning, bacteria are plants • archaic, a bill or account, or its settlement • the avenging or punishing of past mistakes or misdeeds: the fear of being brought to reckoning there will be a terrible reckoning (Oxford English Dictionary) Looking back on the period, just before 1994, is sobering indeed. At the time, many saw in the energies and courage of those fighting for liberation the possibilities of a post-racial, post-conflict society. Yet as much as the new was ushered in, old apartheid forms lingered. Recalling Nadine Gordimer’s invocation of Gramsci’s “morbid symptoms” more and more it seems “the old is dying and the new cannot be born” (Gramsci cited in Gordimer 1982). And even as the new began to emerge other forces—both internal and external to South Africa—redefined the conditions for transformation. The so-called “new” South Africa, as Jennifer Wenzel has argued, was really more than anything “the changing face of old oppressions” (Wenzel 2009:159). The implications for our special theme section of CSSAAME are many. We begin by exploring the gender, race, and class dimensions of contemporary South African life by way of its literatures, histories, and politics, its reversion to custom, the claims of ancestors on the living, in brief, the various cultural expressive modes in which contemporary South Africa reckons with its past and in so doing accounts, day by day, for the ways in which the present can be lived, pragmatically. This moves us some distance from the exercise in “truth and reconciliation” of the earlier post-transition years to consider more fully the nature of post-conflict, the suturing of old enmities in the present, and the ways of resolving those lingering suspicions both ordinary and the stuff of the dark night of the soul (Nelson 2009:xv).

          • GG Curtin, MH Sommer and V Vis-Sommer.
          • (2013).
          • Introduction.
          • The World of E-Government
          • ,
          • 1-16.
          • [web]
          • ANNE-MARIA MAKHULU.
          • (2012).
          • Violence in a Time of Liberation: Murder and Ethnicity at a South African Gold Mine, 1994 by.
          • American Ethnologist
          • ,
          • 39
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 843-844.
          • [web]
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (January, 2012).
          • The Conditions for after Work: Financialization and Informalization in Posttransition South Africa.
          • PMLA
          • Vicky Unruh (Eds.),
          • ,
          • 127
          • (4)
          • ,
          • 782-799.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          “The Conditions for after Work” situates the problem of work in the twenty-first century in the global south, specifically in South Africa, in part as a way of challenging some of the assumptions of northern theories of the crisis of work. Addressing the very particular challenges of the postcolonial context where the break between Fordism and post-Fordism arises rather differently, this essay argues that new regimes of work should be understood in relation to longer histories of colonial resistance to proletarianization (to the racisms of the shop floor), to Fordisms of another sort, and how these inform the current expansion of informal employment. What sorts of practices and forms of life emerge from the precarity of informal economies and informal settlements? And how are such precarious modes of life connected to and informed by the steady dematerialization of the economy through financialization?

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (Summer, 2010).
          • The "Dialectics of Toil": Reflections on the Politics of Space after Apartheid.
          • ANTHROPOLOGICAL QUARTERLY
          • Jesse Weaver Shipley (Eds.),
          • ,
          • Ethics of Scale: Relocating Politics After Liberation
          • ,
          • 83
          • (3)
          • ,
          • 551-580.
          • George Washington University Institute for Ethnographic Research.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          Sixteen years since the end of the liberation struggle South Africa's cities have become crucial spaces of self-determination and lively community democracy. Yet their form has changed very little instead highlighting the persistence of poverty (and racism) within neoliberal, post-apartheid capitalism that the transition promised to end. This article explores the enduring quality of deep economic and social marginalization, specifically in the context of Cape Town's informal settlements, which reflect both collective desires for "rights to the city" and their denial.

      • Articles & Book Chapters

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2004).
          • Poetic Justice: Xhosa Idioms and Moral Breach in Post-Apartheid South Africa.
          • In B Weiss (Eds.),
          • Producing African Futures: Ritual and Reproduction in a Neoliberal Age
          • ,
          • Studies of Religion in Africa
          • ,
          • 26
          • ,
          • (pp. 229-261).
          • Brill Press.
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2010).
          • The Question of Freedom: Post-Emancipation South Africa in a Neoliberal Age.
          • In CJ Greenhouse (Eds.),
          • Ethnographies of Neoliberalism
          • ,
          • (pp. 376 pages-376 pages).
          • University of Pennsylvania Press.
          Publication Description

          The history of struggle which culminated in South Africa’s political transition in the early 90s is well known. Yet its official and relatively untroubled face rests on an exquisite contradiction, namely the subsumption of the very political ideals for which people fought during the course of more than four decades in the very form of liberal constitutional democracy itself, moreover, under the sign of neoliberalism. Thus whatever the protections afforded or implied by the constitution—a constitution which by all accounts is the envy of the world for its high level of inclusivity—-many such critical aspects of this document remain unrealizable. To be sure South Africa is not unique in its limited capacity to translate political ideals into concretely experienced outcomes. Yet, coming to freedom so belatedly, South Africa has all too clearly shown the limits of emancipation under late capitalism—-its postcolonial status so deferred that it made the contradictions of its coming into being all the more visible. Imagine then the very concrete paradoxes that follow from a notion of political struggle conceived as radical revolution; whose central charter had long promised the nationalization of everything—-the seizure of land from a landed elite, in sum, the reclaiming of the Commons—but whose achievement came after "actually existing socialism." This new world order had made revolutions and transitions no longer thinkable, speakable, or practicable. It is against the backdrop of such transformations that South African emancipation is conceived in this essay.

          • with
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2010).
          • Introduction.
          • In A-M Makhulu and BA Buggenhagen and S Jackson (Eds.),
          • Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities
          • ,
          • The University of California International and Area Studies Digital Collection (also published in hardcopy)
          • ,
          • (pp. 240 pages-240 pages).
          • University of California Press.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          The description of Africa as a continent in perpetual crisis, ubiquitous in the popular media and in policy and development circles, is at once obvious and obfuscating. This collection by leading ethnographers moves beyond the rhetoric of African crisis to theorize people’s everyday practices under volatile conditions not of their own making. From Ghanaian hiplife music to the U.S. "diversity lottery" in Togo, from politicos in Côte d’Ivoire to squatters in South Africa, the essays in Hard Work, Hard Times uncover the imaginative ways in which African subjects make and remake themselves and their worlds, and thus make do, get by, get over, and sometimes thrive.

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2010).
          • The Search for Economic Sovereignty.
          • In A-MB Makhulu and BA Buggenhagen and S Jackson (Eds.),
          • Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities
          • ,
          • The University of California International and Area Studies Digital Collection, (also published in hardcopy)
          • ,
          • (pp. 240 pages-240 pages).
          • University of California Press.
          • [web]
          Publication Description

          “Slums” on the outskirts of many global cities signal not only the fact of deepening inequalities under neoliberalism, but equally the integration of local markets within broader circuits of capital and the remaking of cities primarily as sites of international production through the “localization of globalization.” But what few commentators from the United Nations Human Settlements Programme to scholars the likes of Mike Davis have been able to explain are the effective mechanisms of survival in operation in so-called “slums.” Davis has as much as acknowledged that while we face an “epochal transition” in the location of populations in relation to work opportunities, or rather the near total absence of such opportunities, how people make do remains a puzzle and for economists a “wage puzzle.” How indeed, do ordinary people, almost a billion at last count, confront the challenges of social reproduction under conditions of almost total disarticulation from wage work? This essay seeks to address the “wage puzzle” not so much in economistic terms but rather through a theoretical engagement with the terms of lived experience. Drawing on research in Cape Town, specifically on the immiserated margins of South Africa’s gateway city to the rest of the Continent, I argue that social reproduction is better understood in precisely the terms that are so critical to the larger volume Hard Work, Hard Times: Global Volatility and African Subjectivities. And that moving away from simple explanations of the informalization of the economy that instead we need to think about the politics of bare life: the linkages between housing and the reproduction of labor power; what kinds of new subjectivities emerge in the face of the disarticulation of daily life from circuits of capital and commodities; what forms of desire are shaped by austerity; and how does austerity refigure, often enough, complex practices of money exchange, lending, and abstention. How, for example, is it that in contexts of spiraling debt, exorbitant interest rates, and land speculation—all symptoms of the transnationalization of cities—that institutions of money lending, saving, and banking amongst the poor should mirror the logics of global capital. Here there seems at issue a matter of scale or articulation. More properly, to what degree are the crisis tendencies of capitalism reflected in micro-practices of the poor and what forms of ingenuity are necessary to redirecting what Stephen Jackson has referred to as the “systematic imperative of making do.”

      • Papers Submitted

          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2016).
          • The Debt Imperium: Relations of Owing After Apartheid.
          • In W Adebanwi (Eds.),
          • Beyond the Margins: The Political Economy of Life in Modern Africa (essays in honor of Jane I. Guyer)
          • Indiana University Press.
          • (Under Review)
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2015).
          • Gaining Ground: Squatters and the Right to the City.
          • In T Olaniyan (Eds.),
          • Enchantings: Modernity, Culture, and the State in Postcolonial Africa
          • Indiana University Press.
          • (Forthcoming)
          Publication Description

          This essay concerns the history of squatting in Cape Town beginning in the early to mid-twentieth century and concluding after the transition to democracy. It focuses specifically on a series of contiguous settlements in the south eastern region of the Cape Metropolitan Area.

      • Papers In Progress

          • Anne-Maria Makhulu.
          • (2016).
          • Afterword.
          • Journal of Southern African Studies
          • Maxim Bolt and Dinah Rajak (Eds.),
          • ,
          • Insecurity and Violence in South Africa Special Issue
          • ,
          • 42
          • (5)
          • .
          • Anne-Maria Makhulu.
          • (2016).
          • The Haunted Present: Reckoning After Apartheid.
          • Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
          • Anne-Maria Makhulu and Clare Counihan (Eds.),
          • ,
          • 36
          • (1)
          • .
          • C Counihan, LV Graham, N Hoad, N Makhubu, A-M Makhulu and RL Turner.
          • (2015).
          • Reckoning With Apartheid: The Conundrum of Working Through the Past.
          • Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East
          • C Counihan and A-M Makhulu (Eds.),
          • ,
          • 36
          • (1)
          • Duke University Press.
          Publication Description

          From April 26-29, 1994, South Africa held its first universal, democratic elections. Witnessed by the world, South Africans of all races waited patiently in line to cast their ballots, signaling the official and symbolic birth of the “new” South Africa. The subsequent years, marked initially with euphoric hopes for racial healing enabled by institutional processes such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), have instead, most recently, inspired deep concern about epidemic levels of HIV/AIDS, violent crime, state corruption, and unbridled market reforms directed at everything from property to bodies to babies. Now, seemingly beleaguered state officials deploy the mantra “TINA” (There Is No Alternative [to neoliberal development]) to fend off criticism of growing income and wealth disparities. To coincide, more or less, with the anniversary of 1994—less to commemorate than to signal something about the trajectory of the past twenty years—we are proposing an interdisciplinary, special theme section of Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (CSSAAME) entitled “The Haunted Present: Reckoning After Apartheid” (tentative title). The special theme section is framed around questions of reckoning in the double sense of both a moral and practical accounting for historical injury alongside the challenges and failures of the no-longer “new” South Africa. Against accounts depicting the liberation era as non-violent and peaceable, more nuanced analysis we argue suggests not only that South Africa’s “revolution” was marked by both collective and individual violence—on the part of the state and the liberation movements—but that reckoning with the present demands of scholars, the media, and cultural commentators that they begin to grapple more fully with the dimensions and different figurations of South Africa’s violent colonial history. Indeed, violence and reckoning appear as two central forces in contemporary South African political, economic, and social life. In response, we are driven to pose the following questions: In the post-apartheid period, what forms of (individual, structural) violence have come to bear on South African life? How does this violence reckon with apartheid and its legacies? Does it in fact reckon with the past? How can we or should we think about violence as a response to the (failed?) reckoning of state initiatives like the TRC? What has enabled or enables aesthetic forms—literature, photography, plastic arts, and other modes of expressive culture—to respond to the difficulties of South Africa’s ongoing transition? What, in fact, would a practice or ethic of reckoning defined in the following way look like? ˈrekəniNG/ noun: • the action or process of calculating or estimating something: last year was not, by any reckoning, a particularly good one; the system of time reckoning in Babylon • a person’s view, opinion, or judgment: by ancient reckoning, bacteria are plants • archaic, a bill or account, or its settlement • the avenging or punishing of past mistakes or misdeeds: the fear of being brought to reckoning there will be a terrible reckoning (Oxford English Dictionary) Looking back on the period, just before 1994, is sobering indeed. At the time, many saw in the energies and courage of those fighting for liberation the possibilities of a post-racial, post-conflict society. Yet as much as the new was ushered in, old apartheid forms lingered. Recalling Nadine Gordimer’s invocation of Gramsci’s “morbid symptoms” more and more it seems “the old is dying and the new cannot be born” (Gramsci cited in Gordimer 1982). And even as the new began to emerge other forces—both internal and external to South Africa—redefined the conditions for transformation. The so-called “new” South Africa, as Jennifer Wenzel has argued, was really more than anything “the changing face of old oppressions” (Wenzel 2009:159). The implications for our special theme section of CSSAAME are many. We begin by exploring the gender, race, and class dimensions of contemporary South African life by way of its literatures, histories, and politics, its reversion to custom, the claims of ancestors on the living, in brief, the various cultural expressive modes in which contemporary South Africa reckons with its past and in so doing accounts, day by day, for the ways in which the present can be lived, pragmatically. This moves us some distance from the exercise in “truth and reconciliation” of the earlier post-transition years to consider more fully the nature of post-conflict, the suturing of old enmities in the present, and the ways of resolving those lingering suspicions both ordinary and the stuff of the dark night of the soul (Nelson 2009:xv).

          • A-M Makhulu, A Allison, S Amrute, F Barchiesi, A Bauer, M Bhan, C Fennell, M Peterson and D Rajak.
          • (2016).
          • Welfare.
          • SAQ: The South Atlantic Quarterly
          • A-M Makhulu (Eds.),
          • ,
          • 115
          • (1)
          • Duke University Press.
          • A-M Makhulu.
          • (2016).
          • The New South African Debt Economy.
          • In G Watson and G Wilder (Eds.),
          • Critical Horizons: The Postcolonial Contemporary
          • Fordham University Press.
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